Climate Services Resources

Coastal communities are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and ecosystem degradation. Climate services — science-based information and products that enhance users’ knowledge and understanding of the impacts of climate on their decisions and actions — are essential for coastal communities to adapt and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

GCOOS has developed this page to help the public, government agencies, communities and businesses in Gulf of Mexico states better understand climate change, and the data and resources that are available to help them make decisions about how to live, work, and operate in the face of climate change.

GCOOS is also actively working to create a Framework for Coastal Climate Services (FCCS) aimed at improving the overall effectiveness of climate data available and service delivery across Gulf region states. This effort involves extensive research, and stakeholder engagement, drawing inspiration from the Federal Framework and Action Plan for Climate Services and leveraging insights from the Global Framework for Climate Services.

The primary goal of GCOOS’s FCCS is to identify the challenges and opportunities related to climate services in the Gulf and to define the organization’s role in contributing to broader government-led initiatives aimed at addressing the climate crisis, enhancing community resilience, and promoting sustainable socio-economic growth in the U.S.

Climate Data, Products, Indices and Models

Service Name Description Website Link Location is a one-stop shop for climate information, including data, tools, and resources. International
NOAA’s National Weather Service Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) The Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provides timely and accurate marine weather warnings and forecasts to protect life and property at sea while enhancing maritime weather readiness and the economic viability of the maritime community.  OPC forecasters continuously monitor weather over the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans and issue warnings and forecasts out to five days. On average, OPC issues 12,700 warnings each year. This includes wind warnings (gale – storm – hurricane force), heavy freezing spray warnings, and ashfall advisories. OPC is an integral component of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) at the National Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (NCWCP) in College Park, Maryland. OPC United States
NOAA Regional Climate Centers The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) manages the Regional Climate Center (RCC) Program. This program provides climate services to six regions in the United States. RCCs offer efficient, user-driven services in three key areas:
-Developing and providing sector-specific and value-added climate data products and services
-Creating robust and efficient digital infrastructure for delivering climate information
-Seamlessly integrating and storing non-NOAA climate data with traditional NOAA data sources
RCCs United States
Global Sea Level NOAA’s Global sea level gives data and information on sea level rise, future sea level rise projections, and educational resources on the science behind sea level rise. Global Sea Level International
Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology Version 2 The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology Version 2 now incorporates high-resolution temperature and salinity decadal climatologies, enabling researchers to conduct more accurate assessments of decadal climate changes in the Gulf. This enhancement significantly enhances the utility of the GOM RC for ocean climate studies and various other applications. Additionally, the updated version includes refreshed data and figures for additional oceanographic parameters like oxygen and nutrients. GOM RC United States
National Weather Services Climate Prediction Center CPC delivers real-time products and information that predict and describe climate variations on timescales from weeks to years thereby promoting effective management of climate risk and a climate-resilient society. CPC United States
NOAA Storm Prediction Center The Storm Prediction Center (SPC) is part of the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The Storm Prediction Center uses innovative science and technology to deliver timely and accurate watch and forecast products/information dealing with tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, lightning, wildfires, and winter weather in the United States to protect lives and property. SPC United States
US Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center EROS produces data products that show how land use and cover have changed over time. These products are used by researchers, resource managers, and policymakers all over the United States and the world. They also work with NASA to run the Landsat satellite program, which collects images of the Earth’s land surface. They have the largest collection of civilian satellite images of the Earth’s land surface, with tens of millions of images. USGS EROS United States
NASA Earthdata The Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program provides full and open access to NASA’s collection of Earth science data for understanding and protecting our home planet. Earthdata International
Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) AHPS is a web-based suite of accurate and information-rich forecast products that display the magnitude and uncertainty of the occurrence of floods or droughts, from hours to days and months, in advance. AHPS provides products that are useful information and planning tools for many economic and emergency managers. AHPS products enable government agencies, private institutions, and individuals to make more informed decisions about risk-based policies and actions to mitigate the dangers posed by floods and droughts. AHPS United States
The Global Drought Monitor -NOAA The Global Drought Monitor depicts current drought conditions across the globe using a “bottom-up” approach. The drought conditions on each continent are assessed by the Nations of that continent. Global Drought Monitor International
The U.S. Drought Portal The U.S. Drought Portal is the U.S. government’s authoritative drought information website. It provides a sector-by-sector one-stop-shop for data, decision-support products, resources, and information on drought—from drought monitoring and prediction to planning and preparedness, to applied research. U.S. Drought Portal United States
Copernicus ERA5 explorer ERA5 Explorer reconstructs the historical atmospheric conditions worldwide from 1979 to 2020, employing a fusion of forecasting models and data assimilation systems to retrospectively analyze past observations. Therefore, the insights provided by this application for particular locations do not constitute direct, site-specific observations. Instead, they are derived from the nearest grid point (at a resolution of approximately 1 degree) in the ERA5 reanalysis corresponding to the selected location. ERA5 Explorer International
Copernicus Monthly Climate Bulletin The tool displays a world map presenting temperature, precipitation, humidity, and soil moisture anomalies relative to a customizable 30-year base period, averaged over user-defined time spans. By selecting highlighted regions, users can access time-series data showcasing the anomalies of all mentioned variables averaged over the chosen area. Users can investigate the dataset focusing on combined regions such as the world, Europe, and its larger regions, as discussed in the report, along with specific European countries. Climate Bulletin International

Climate Decision Support Tools and Synthesis Resources

Service Name Description Website Link Location
National Climate Assessment (NCA2018) The National Climate Assessment (NCA) assesses the science of climate change and
variability and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century.
NCA2018 United States
USDA Climate Hubs USDA Climate Hubs are a team of experts from different USDA agencies who work together to provide farmers and other agricultural professionals with the information and tools they need to adapt to climate change. The Hubs are located in ten different regions across the United States so that they can provide tailored information to the specific needs of each region. USDA Climate Hubs United States
EPA Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X) EPA’s Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X) is an interactive resource to help local governments effectively deliver services to their communities even as the climate changes. Decision-makers can create an integrated package of information tailored specifically to their needs. Once users select areas of interest, they will find information about the risks posed by climate change to the issues of concern; relevant adaptation strategies; case studies illustrating how other communities have successfully adapted to those risks and tools to replicate their successes; and EPA funding opportunities. EPA ARC-X United States
The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Adaptive Ecosystem Climatology (AEC) is a comprehensive system that integrates a range of data sources, including in situ earth observations, satellite data, and ocean model outputs. Its primary purpose is to generate daily summaries of ocean climate conditions along the U.S. East and West Coasts and in the Gulf of Mexico. This dataset is unique as it combines both physical oceanographic data such as currents and temperature, and biological data including chlorophyll concentrations and plankton population estimates. NRL AEC United States
Coastal Restoration Toolkit The Coastal Restoration Toolkit offers introductory educational resources for community members interested in initiating a coastal restoration project, covering the entire process from conception to proposal. The Toolkit is organized into five distinct topic areas, encompassing Flooding, Coastal Erosion, Water Quality, Invasive Species, and Wildlife Habitats. Within these sections, you can find project illustrations, a variety of tools and resources, contact information, potential funding sources, and guidance on permitting procedures.
This Toolkit serves as a starting point for individuals seeking to address coastal restoration needs within their local communities, providing valuable insights and resources to help turn ideas into actionable solutions.
Restoration Toolkit United States
U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit The U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit is a website designed to help people find and use tools, information, and subject matter expertise to build climate resilience. The Toolkit offers information from all across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location Resilience Toolkit United States
The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Climate Monitoring Center The NCEI Climate Monitoring Center provides monthly reports on selected climate anomalies and events in the United States and the World. Climate Monitoring Center International
National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) The Drought Center supports individuals, groups, and institutions in strengthening their ability to withstand droughts by overseeing and preparing using their expertise in weather patterns, societal studies, and community involvement. They operate across various levels, ranging from individual farms to regional, national, and indigenous governing bodies, both domestically and globally. NDMC International
National Integrated Heat Health Information System The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS) was created by NOAA and CDC as an interagency integrated information system to develop and provide actionable, science-based information to help protect people from heat. Heat Health Information United States
Copernicus Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) is a part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (CEMS) and is specifically created to aid in preparing for global flood events, especially those occurring in extensive international river basins. GloFAS International
Copernicus Global Drought Observatory (GDO) The Global Drought Observatory (GDO) primarily addresses emergency response concerns. It emphasizes a Map Viewer and a comprehensive informational report. The GDO is created by the group behind the European Drought Observatory (EDO). While some services are available on the web platform, with a focus on Europe, specific occurrences such as heatwaves and low water levels are only documented there. Additionally, the EDO team has also developed Drought Observatories for South and Central America (SCADO) and Africa (ADO). GDO International

Helpful Definitions

Climate Services

The American Meteorology Society (AMS) defines climate services as scientifically based information and products that enhance users’ knowledge and understanding of the impacts of climate on their decisions and actions. These services are made most effective through collaboration between providers and users.

Climate vs Weather

Climate is closely related to weather but is not the same thing. Weather refers to the short-term changes in the atmosphere, whereas climate describes what the weather is like over a long period in a specific area; the average of precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind, and other measures of weather that occurs over a long period in a particular place. The climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. (NOAA)


Supporting structure around which something can be built; a system of rules, ideas, or beliefs that are used to plan or decide something. 

Coastal Zone

A unifying region where the part of the land is affected by its proximity to the sea, and that part of the sea is affected by its proximity to the land as the extent to which man’s land-based activities have a measurable influence on water chemistry and marine ecology. Human and natural threats to coastal zones include extreme weather, rising sea levels, agricultural runoff, invasive species, and overfishing.